These are the photos I used in my interviews and survey:
These are the photos I used in my interviews and survey:
[Sorry these are late, I thought Mohamed was going to post them)
1. How would you define masculinity?
2. How would you define aesthetics of masculinity (Physical features, clothing, etc)
3. What emotions would you consider masculine?
4. What emotions would you consider to be effeminate?
5. What would make a man effeminate?
6. Do you think you could tell a man’s sexuality just by appearance?
7. What physical or aesthetic features do you think gay man possess?
8. Does effeminate = gay? (i.e. Do you automatically assume a man that is effeminate is gay?)
9. What would your reaction be to a) being called gay insultingly b) being mistaken for being gay
10. Do you think being seen with an effeminate would make you appear effeminate by association?
What is the main goal/objective of the organization or group? In what ways do members try to achieve their goals?
Indymedia strives to empower people to become the media by presenting honest, accurate, powerful independent reports. The goals vary between all the leaders of this organization but one vague long-term goal is to “foster and facilitate the development of as much independent media as possible around the world.”
The organization provides up-to-the-minute reports, photos, audio and video footage through its website as well as its own newspaper, distributed throughout Seattle and to other cities via the internet, as well as audio segments, transmitted through the web and radio.
As far as you can tell: who are the members of this group? Who can join, and how?
The organization is made up of various independent and alternative media organizations and activists.
Would you join this group; why or why not?
I would not personally join this group because I do not have any interest in their cause but that does not take away from the fact that I think they’re work is valiant. I just am not a journalist or an activist.
Also, post a link to your favorite artwork / video / article from the group on your blog.
This is a link from an article on the IMC. I am too afraid to watch it (though I believe they said it was removed by YouTube) but I find the article aout it rather interesting. The video evidently depicts U.S. soldiers killing civilians in Iraq. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QJ_zTrjMhX8
Clarkson, Jay. “Everyday Joe” versus “Pissy, Bitchy, Queens” Gay Masculinity on StraightActing.com. The Journal of Men’s Studies, Vol 14(2), Spr 2006. Pp. 191-207
Phoenix, Ann; Frosh, Stephen; Pattman, Rob. Producing Contradictory Masculine Subject Positions: Narrative of Threat, Homophobia and bullying in 11-14 Year Old Boys. Journal of Social Issues, Vol 59(1), 2003. Special issue: Youth perspectives on violence and injustice. Pp. 179-195
“Everyday Joe” versus “Pissy, Bitchy, Queens” Gay Masculinity on StraightActing.com
In this paper, Jay Clarkson analyzes the discourse on Straight-Acting.com. The website is a common place for self proclaimed “straight acting gay men” to discuss various topics and issues. Primarily they discuss what it is to act straight and what constitutes straight and/or gay acting. While the website promotes gay men to act straight, this ultimately discourages gay men from acting effeminate. Clarkson describes the discourse with this website as “highly homophobic and glorifying the normative standards of masculinity”. Clarkson explores the idea that gay men conforming to these normative standards of masculinity as the direct opposite of the cultural stereotype that conflates homosexuality with femininity. Clarkson believes that the men on this website construct their idea of masculinity based on the normative working-class heterosexual male and this normative masculinity depends on the subjugation of women and effeminate men. Selective homophobia is mentioned in this paper and it is the idea that gay men can be accepted as long as they conform to heteronormative expectations but condemning those gay men that do not conform to these expectations. Homographesis is another term mentioned in this paper that is important to note. Homographesis is the assumption that homosexuality can be identifies visually, behaviorally, and/or psychologically distinguished from other sexualities. The assumption is that that are characteristics that can signify homosexuality such as clothing, gait, posture, facial expressions, hand gestures, tone of voice, etc. This assumption relies on the cultural stereotype of homosexuals being feminine rather than masculine.
Producing Contradictory Masculine Subject Positions: Narrative of Threat, Homophobia and bullying in 11-14 Year Old Boys
This paper is a qualitative analysis of data from a study of masculinity in 11-14 year old boys attending a dozen different schools in London. It examines the relationship between bullying and homophobia these boys face on a daily basis in their schools. They derive that due to the hierarchy in the school setting, based on toughness and concomitant homophobia, these boys are constrained and/or enabled by their concept of masculinity. This constant pressure and threat to their own masculinity often creates feelings of sadness and loneliness, but as these are not stereotypically masculine emotions, they must be concealed and replaced with a defensive nature. In the context of their study, they establish masculinity as synonymous with toughness, physical aggression, homophobia and anti-femininity. Interviews were done in group settings as well as individual interviews and the boys showed a lot less bravado in the individual interviews. In the group interviews around their peers, they had to keep up the sense of masculinity that was expected of them but did not display the same bravado individually. This helps demonstrate that these senses of masculinity are forced and comes as a direct result of their need to conform to the heteronormative expectations of them.
We will be conducting interviews with men of all ages in order to group them together into the age groups we will be comparing. We will ask them a series of questions regarding their definition of masculinity, what it means for a man to be masculine, whether they feel gay men can be considered masculine, etc. in hopes to examine the relationship between the two. During the interview, we will use photo elicitation in order to see how the men react to different levels of heteronormative masculinity and the stereotypical feminine. Combining the interview with the reactions to the photographs should help us notice a relationship between men’s sense and idea of masculinity and the way homosexuality affects this.
We will fully disclose the intentions of our interview with the men and ask their permission to use anything from the interview in our project. We will remind them they can end the interview and withdraw from participating in our project whenever they want to. Sexuality is a sensitive topic to most so we will be careful to try not to push or offend anyone with the interview. The photos we will use for the photo elicitation, we will make sure we have permission to use and will credit the sources. Any pictures we take, we will put a creative commons license on and make sure have permission of any possible subjects in the photos.
I agreed when Emmanuel David stated that due to the political nature of the graffiti, they would be quickly covered up, taken down or in any other way removed. I also agree that his taking pictures of the graffiti would help immortalize it and keep it from being forgotten in time.
For any pictures that we will show the people we interview, we will have to obtain pictures that we are allowed to use. Any pictures we take, we will put a creative commons license on. I do not anticipate taking any pictures on the people we interview so I don’t think we will have to worry getting consent to use anyone’s image but we will if it becomes an issue. We will explain our project and what we are looking at to the people we interview before we interview them so they are fully aware of everything so they can properly agree to disagree to giving us an interview. We will respect everyone’s privacy, especially since we are dealing with sexuality which is a sensitive topic to most. It is important that they know we can hide their name if they wish so the connection cannot be made back to them, especially since we may be getting harsh reactions out of them. Lastly, we will try our best not to offend anyone for their ideas, opinions or views and try to depict their opinions without judgment.
This is a picture of a study I used to write my paper on a few semesters ago that I used to come up with the basis of my idea for this project. The paper was for a psychology class so it focused more on the psychology of this issue, but we will be focusing more on the sociological stand point. I referenced four studies for this paper and we will be looking at all of them.
I chose this photo from the Westboro Baptist Church’s website because they are an extremely well known anti-gay church (their website is godhatesfags.com). ‘God Hates Fags’ is one of their best know slogans and they use their religion to preach their hatred to homosexuals and all those that support or defend them. They are on the extreme end of the spectrum of attitudes towards homosexuals, but they are definitely worth noting.
These photos supplement my midterm exam.
Harper’s BAZAAR Australia:
I will be working with Mohamed for this project and we will be looking at men’s reactions to the threat of being called homosexual to their masculinity. We will be focusing on age groups 18-27, 28-37 and 38-50 and we will take ethnicity and religion into factor. We will be conducting interviews with photo elicitation.
We are curious to see the difference in reaction between the age groups towards the effect of homosexuality on their masculinity. We will ask them questions about the way homosexuality influences their own sense of masculinity (Whether or not being called ‘gay’ or mistaken for being gay offends their masculinity). Then we will show them photos of a wide range of men deviating from the heterosexual norm into the homosexual stereotype.